doc Ò Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster Hardcover read Ö dogsalonbristol

kindle ☆ Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster Þ Adam Higginbotham

kindle ☆ Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster Þ Adam Higginbotham The definitive Chernobyl The PDF #8608 dramatic untold story of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster based on original reporting and new archival researchAprilin Chernobyl was a turning point in world history The disaster not only changed the world’s perception of nuclear power and the Midnight in eBook #180 science that spawned it but also our understanding of the planet’s delicate ecology With the images of the abandoned homes and playgrounds beyond the barbed wire of the kilometer Exclusion Zone the rusting graveyards of contaminated trucks and helicopters the farmland lashed with black in Chernobyl The MOBI #242 rain the event fixed for all tim I’ve been deeply fascinated with Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Explosion ever since I read Svetlana Alexievich’s brilliant and deeply soul crushing Voices from Chernobyl The Oral History of a Nuclear Disaster that was indeed the people’s story of a true catastrophe Since then I’ve read a number of books on the disaster and for reasons strange and unfathomable even to my weird brain HBO brilliant miniseries “Chernobyl” became for me a kind of a comfort watch — a disturbing soul crushing painful “comfort watch” Maybe it hits home me being a kid at the time and living relatively speaking not that far but thankfully far enough from the site of the tragedy Maybe it’s remembering the stories my mom used to tell how in the Chernobyl summer our close relatives in the areas of Belarus less than 100 miles away from the disaster site noted how very large and pretty and delicious the mushrooms and berries were not connecting the lushness of nature with the radiation effects Maybe I just get obsessed easily with morbid situations I don’t know but by now I’ve read a few tomes about the disaster and Higginbotham’s book although stopping just a bit short of the excellence reached by Serhii Plokhy in his brilliantly researched Chernobyl The History of a Nuclear Catastrophe is still uite excellent “The temperature inside the reactor rose to 4650 degrees centigrade—not uite as hot as the surface of the sun” It is not easy not only to describe a tragedy but also to make the readers easily understand the science behind the faulty reactor and the Swiss cheese model chain of events that led to it It’s not easy to strike a balance between laying the groundwork explaining the science describing the political background usually not too familiar for non Soviets and still keeping it engaging and interesting and easy to follow Adam Higginbotham does a very good job with it “The roof of the twenty story building had been torn open its upper levels blackened and collapsed into heaps of rubble They could see shattered panels of ferroconcrete tumbled blocks of graphite and here and there the glinting metal casings of fuel assemblies from the core of a nuclear reactor A cloud of steam drifted from the wreckage into the sunlit sky”“Graphite blocks that had once formed the core of the reactor lay everywhere—some turned white perhaps by the heat of the explosion but otherwise intact Around them levels of radiation reached as much as 10000 roentgen an hour enough for a fatal dose in less than three minutes” ——————————The recipe for Chernobyl nuclear disaster in a nutshellview spoiler Human error the initial desperate convenient scapegoat The test run at the time of the explosion was botched due to numerous factors including human error unforgiving hierarchy fear of retribution fear to admit a mistake lack of accountability and transparency and lack of understanding the conseuences of mishandling the supposedly super safe reactor due to overarching secrecy in which the nuclear program and its failures have been shrouded “But it soon became clear that neither the design of the reactor nor the long trail of accidents and institutional cover ups that preceded the disaster would be considered by the court Although none of the accused was tortured to confess or brought to the stand to denounce counterrevolutionary activity no one doubted the outcome of the proceedings it effectively became one of the final show trials in the history of the Soviet Union” Unsafe RBMK reactor The botched test tested the limits of the unwieldy and unsafe reactor which had multiple faults including its unmanageable size and terrifyingly dangerous positive void coefficient and the emergency shutdown button which in certain condition could turn reactor into a bomb but the reactor nevertheless continued to be used because it was cheap to make and accidents were kept secret and any modifications to improve safety were either not done or the reasoning for them not made clear to the operators because of neverending state secrecy “This problem was especially pronounced during start up and shutdown when the reactor was operating at low power—and the systems designed to detect reactivity within the core proved unreliable During these crucial periods the engineers at their desks in the control room became almost totally blind to what was happening inside the active zone Instead of reading their instruments they were forced to estimate the levels of activity in the core using “experience and intuition” This made start up and shutdown the most demanding and treacherous stages of RBMK operation”“While conducting tests before the two reactors could be brought into normal operation the start up teams of nuclear engineers in Ignalina and Chernobyl noticed a small but disturbing glitch When they used the AZ 5 scram button to shut down the reactor the control rods began their descent into the core but instead of completing a smooth shutdown the rods initially had the opposite effect for a brief moment reactor power rose instead of falling” The faulty bureaucratic secrecy ridden stagnant state system And all this made possible and potentiated by the state and political system steeped in secrecy inefficiency and retribution — which immediately responded with the attempts to pretend that a global disaster did not happen “In 1980 NIKIET completed a confidential study that listed nine major design failings and thermohydraulic instabilities which undermined the safety of the RBMK reactor The report made it clear that accidents were not merely possible under rare and improbable conditions but also likely in the course of everyday operation Yet they took no action to redesign the reactor or even to warn plant personnel of its potential hazards”“Meanwhile every accident that did occur at a nuclear station in the Soviet Union continued to be regarded as a state secret kept even from the specialists at the installations where they occurred” hide spoiler

mobi Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster

doc Ò Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster Hardcover read Ö dogsalonbristol ✓ [PDF / Epub] ★ Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster Author Adam Higginbotham  E the notion of radiation as an invisible killerChernobyl was also a key event in in Chernobyl The Untold Story ePUB #8608 the destruction of the Soviet Union and with it the United States’ victory in the Cold War For Moscow it was a political and in Chernobyl The Untold Story ePUB #8608 financial catastrophe as much as an environmental and scientific one With a total cost of billion rubles at the time euivalent to billion Chernobyl bankrupted an already teetering economy and revealed to its population a state built upon a pillar of lies The full story of the events that started that night in the control room of Reactor No of the VI Lenin Nuclear Power Pla Evgeny Velikhov asked Deputy Minister Silayev to call Gorbachev with a message Tell him that our outhouse is overflowing and they'll have to climb a mountain of shit Midnight in Chernobyl is a comprehensive account of the events leading up to and resulting from the meltdown of Reactor Number Four at Chernobyl power station It details not only the technical failures that led to the meltdown but also the interpersonal dynamics and prevailing attitudes of secrecy and sycophancy within the USSR governmental structure that contributed to the disaster It also explores the subseuent confusion around how to contain the nuclear fallout and the monumental efforts by so many firefighters plant operators scientists doctors and ordinary citizens to undo the damage and save livesI went in knowing almost nothing about Chernobyl and found it absolutely fascinating and eye opening The author did a great job building a cohesive narrative out of what must have been hundreds of people's testimonies and a considerable amount of data likely obscured by secrecy and the passage of time I found I had no trouble understanding the technical explanations around how the reactor worked and what led to its ultimate meltdownOne of the things I found most interesting is the book's exploration of the part that cultural and interpersonal dysfunctions played in contributing to and exacerbating the after effects of the meltdown When General Pikalov forecast the decontamination work would take up to seven years to complete the hardline Politburo member Yegor Ligachev exploded in fury He told Pikalov he would have seven monthsAnd if you haven't done it by then we'll relieve you of your Party cardEsteemed Yegor Kuzmich the general replied if that is the situation you needn't wait seven months to take my Party card You can have it now There were so many nuggets of gold like this one within the book The focus on each individual person and their motivations and emotions brought them to life on the pages It turned what could have been a dry nonfiction account into a captivating readIf you've ever been curious about what happened at Chernobyl I highly recommend this book It's accessible to the layman and contains so many insightful and often inadvertently humorous passages on what went so horribly wrong and the heroic effort to set it right Especially at this time when we are all dealing with a viral disaster in the making it can offer a bit of relief to escape and read about a completely different disaster from the past

Adam Higginbotham Þ Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster epub

Midnight in Chernobyl The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear DisasterNt has never been told until now Through two decades of reporting new archival information and firsthand interviews with witnesses journalist Adam Higginbotham tells the full dramatic story including Alexander Akimov and Anatoli Dyatlov who represented the best and worst of Soviet life denizens of a vanished world of secret policemen internal passports food lines and heroic self sacrifice for the Motherland Midnight in Chernobyl award worthy nonfiction that reads like sci fi shows not only the final epic struggle of a dying empire but also the story of individual heroism and desperate ingenious technical improvisation joining forces against a new kind of ene Chernobyl The thriller like account of the disaster and it‘s aftermath On 25 April 1986 the technicians prepared to do a routine maintenance test at Chernobyl’s reactor No 4 designed to showcase the Soviet Union’s scientific prowess The purpose of the test was to simulate what would happen during an electrical blackout The senior engineer Leonid Toptunov was in the control room and began to power downFor a few seconds everything was normal But then there was a roar and the plant began to tremble A shift overseer watched with astonishment how the reactor’s fuel caps started to bounce up and down before the entire thing exploded destroyed the nuclear core and blew off the plant’s concrete roof Explosion of reactor block 4 26 April 1986 More than 30 years later Adam Higginbotham tells the story of the disaster and its horrible aftermath in a thriller like flair It‘s is a story of cover ups irresponsibility confusion lies and doomed ambition favoring Communist party leaders of the UdSSR and bailing on engineers factory workers fire fighters soldiers and civiliansThe mechanical engineer Alexander Yuvchenko was on duty that day and one of the first to fully comprehend the scale of the catastrophe He saw rubble a roofless cavern and thick severed cables swaying with electric sparks There was a “shimmering pillar of ethereal blue white light reaching straight up into the night sky disappearing into infinity” which was the radioactive ionisation of air The atomic contents of the reactor were spilling into the atmosphere and a terrifiing cloud emerged that blew north until reaching Sweden causing mystification and panic Evacuation after 2 days The citizens were let to believe that they would return soonThe response of the USSR was a nightmare Viktor Bryukhanov who was the director of Chernobyl simply refused to accept the radiation readings reported to him He didn‘t gave out an official warning and Ukraine’s regional chiefs refused to evacuate while the politburo in Moscow downplayed the crisis highly alarmed at losing face before the international community and appearance “every accident that did occur at a nuclear station in the Soviet Union continued to be regarded as a state secret kept even from the specialists at the installations where they occurred” It took 2 days before the citizens around the reactor were informed that anything happened and were evacuated Before they cut the telephone lines silenced the propaganda radio but despite that everything was as usual The ambulances that were driving to the plant were doing so in the middle of the night without alarm to not seek attention People were sitting in parks children were playing in contaminated sand and everyone enjoyed a summer day in open air breathing in radiation When the order to move inhabitants out of Pripyat the model city built next to the plant for the factory workers finally came the citizens were bussed out They were told to go for approximately three days not for the rest of their lives and left all belongings behind A woman came home from a weekend away to find a ghost town with nothing but pets which were abandoned because their fur was contaminated Counterproductive attempts of putting out the fire and cooling In between all the bureaucratic incompetence were scenes of stunning bravery of those who understood that their life was ending and tried to safe everyone Helicopter pilots dumped tons of sand and other materials into the reactor to uell its burning red core Before they dumped water on it that only evaporated increasing the radioactivity in the air even After each trip crews would strip off their clothes and decontaminate as best they could Others wore their contaminated clothes for 24h kneeled in contaminated water used their bare hands and were sleeping next to the reactor while doing 16h shifts The pilots were vomiting between their flights and knew that what they were doing was deadly Some managed to flee others were threatened with their life if they didn‘t continue When they returned to their aircraft the next day they found the surrounding grass had gone yellow They knew that what they were doing wasn‘t working the reactor kept burning Still they kept on doing what they were told because the UdSSR government couldn‘t appear not to have the situation under control and take action They were massively afraid of the China Syndrome a core meltdown that would set the other reactors on fire as well and burn through the ground affecting all water lines up to the sea Looking back almost none of the actions they took proofed successful The empty city today most belongings were left behind and started to perishThey tried to keep the accident a secret to all means which backfired During the explosion only one factory worker died and one was missing but The New Yorker wrote of 2000 death and mass graves stating that the UdSSR would spread false information They did but the worldwide media did much worse They didn‘t have an accurate picture of what was happening and the impacts but spread wrong informations anyways It took two and a half weeks before Gorbachev officially acknowledged on tv that a nuclear accident has occurred Meanwhile 25 injured factory workers and fire fighter were flown off to Moscow for radiation sickness without noticing their families They were just gone In Moscow they underwent the three stages of radiation sickness Because of severe anemia their white blood cells plunged to zero All of them got their heads shaved off because of extreme hair loss and experienced extreme nausea and weakness until they suddenly felt better and wanted to discharge themselves A typical and misleading high before their skin went black and their lungs racked by gamma radiation stopped working Loved ones that were finally informed watched helpless as they died one by one The official death toll from the explosion was set to under 50 but until today it is not clear how many people died in conseuence of the catastrophe 800 000 men were send into the plant as liuidators to clean up the plant and there are unknown numbers of civilians dying of cancers or children's who were born with malformations Estimations range from thousands to millions People being tested for radiationWhat is even worse the 1986 disaster was not a single event Instead there were continuously other nuclear mishaps that were covered up before The USSR and the US carried out nuclear tests throughout the Cold War and both lied about the toxic conseuences to reassure the public that civilian nuclear energy and the bomb were perfectly safe Chernobyl was built in a watery landscape made up of numerous streams and rivers with a giant swamp Contamination seeped into the ecosystem affecting villagers who picked berries drank milk from cows and grew their own food It wasn‘t until the year 2000 that they shut off the remaining reactors of the Chernobyl plantThe main cause for the accident was the faulty technical design of the reactor which was a product of the planned economy of the UdSSR To operate safely the reactor reuired constant surveillance by the operators Due to the Cold War they wanted to proof that they were the first ones able to use nuclear energy for civilians which put them under pressure to the reactor